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Investigating the effect of freezing temperature and cross-linking on modulating drug release from chitosan scaffolds

Eshwari Dathathri, Goutam Thakur, K. B. Koteshwara, N. V. Anil Kumar, and Fiona Concy Rodrigues

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India



Received: 8 June 2019  Accepted: 4 December 2019


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of altering design variables like cross-linking and freezing temperature (at a time) on morphology of freeze-dried chitosan scaffolds and modulation of release of Diclofenac sodium (model drug). Freeze-dried chitosan scaffolds produced at − 80 °C, cross-linked with genipin, showed swelling of 163.52 ± 9.95% with sustained drug release of 26.37 ± 10.47% over 24 h (P < 0.05). In comparison, uncross-linked scaffolds produced at − 80 °C showed higher swelling of 173.58 ± 8.23% and drug release of 28.67 ± 2.40% (P < 0.05). Uncross-linked scaffolds produced using freezing temperature of − 20 °C also showed higher swelling of 228.77 ± 9.84% and release of 30.58 ± 3.25% (P < 0.05). Release kinetics followed Higuchi model with Fickian diffusion, thereby indicating a swelling-dependent release. Altering the design parameters also showed significant changes in pore size and porosity, thereby supporting the swelling and drug delivery behavior from scaffolds.

Keywords: Chitosan scaffolds; Genipin; Freezing temperature; Sustained drug release

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-019-01024-0


Chemical Papers 74 (6) 1759–1768 (2020)

Tuesday, May 28, 2024

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