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Electrochemical sensor for ultrasensitive determination of ceftazidime using hollow platinum nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide/pencil graphite electrode

H. R. Akbari Hasanjani and K. Zarei

Damghan University, Damghan, Iran



Abstract: In this paper, an electrochemical sensor was prepared based on the modification of pencil graphite electrode (PGE) by hollow platinum nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (HPtNPs/rGO/PGE) for determination of ceftazidime (CFZ). Initially, rGO was electrodeposited on the electrode surface, and then, hollow platinum nanoparticles were placed on the electrode surface via galvanic displacement reaction of Pt(IV) ions with cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) that had electrodeposited on the electrode surface. Several significant parameters controlling the performance of the HPtNPs/rGO/PGE were examined and optimized using central composite design as one optimization methodology. The surface morphology and elemental characterization of the bare PGE, rGO/PGE, CoNPs/rGO/PGE, and HPtNPs/rGO/PGE-modified electrodes was analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical activity of CFZ on resulting modified electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry (AdDPV). Adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry indicates that peak current increases linearly with respect to increment in CFZ concentration. CFZ was determined in the linear dynamic range of 5.0 × 10−13 to 1.0 × 10−9 M, and the detection limit was determined as 2.2 × 10−13 M using AdDPV under optimized conditions. The results showed that modified electrode has high selectivity and very high sensitivity. The method was used to determine of CFZ in drug injection and plasma samples.

Keywords: Ceftazidime ; Hollow platinum nanoparticles ; Reduced graphene oxide ; Adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry 

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-018-0428-4


Chemical Papers 72 (8) 1935–1944 (2018)

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