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Formation of free and bound 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol in fat-rich cereal model systems: the impact of flour composition

Anna Sadowska-Rociek, Ewa Cieślik, and Adam Florkiewicz

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland



Abstract: The formation of 3-monochloropropano-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) and its esters in seven fat-rich cereal food model systems was investigated. The models, consisting of triolein, various cereal or pseudocereal flours (buckwheat, corn, millet, oat, rice, wheat, and starch), sugar, NaCl and water, were subjected to thermal processing for 10 min at 200 °C and then analysed in terms of the formation of the contaminants. The highest free 3-MCPD level was reached for the model with buckwheat flour (90.7 μg kg−1), and the lowest for the starch-containing model (control; 64.6 μg kg−1). For 3-MCPD esters, the content ranged from 924 μg kg−1 (starch) to 1145 μg kg−1 (oat flour). The experiment revealed the substantial influence of protein and some minerals (Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn) on the level of free 3-MCPD. In the case of 3-MCPD esters, high fat content in samples promoted ester formation, but an inhibitory effect of Na was also observed. The promoting (Mg, Fe, Cu) or inhibiting (Na) role of minerals on 3-MCPD formation was also confirmed with the use of metal ion solutions in different concentrations. The outcomes of the experiment suggest that the use of mineral-rich flours, such as buckwheat and oat flours in heat treatment together with lipids, may lead to increased formation of 3-MCPD and its esters.

Keywords: 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol ; 3-MCPD esters ; Cereals ; Mineral composition 

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-017-0302-9


Chemical Papers 72 (2) 497–507 (2018)

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