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Discontinuous alkylation of diphenylamine with nonene for maximum catalyst utilization

Michal Sklenár, Vladimír Danielik, and Pavol Hudec

Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Technology and Materials, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology STU in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovak Republic



Abstract: This study examines the alkylation of diphenylamine (DPA) with nonene (NON) in a liquid phase catalyzed by acid-treated clay-based catalysts from commercial suppliers (Fulcat 22B, Nobelin MM, and Jeltar 300). Alkylations were conducted to achieve the highest possible selectivity of diisononyldiphenylamine (DNDPA), low selectivity of monoisononyldiphenylamine, and a maximum triisononyldiphenylamine yield of 4%. This study also examines the reaction conditions to selectively form dialkylated diphenylamine from DPA and NON in a batch reactor. Repeated use of the catalyst during the alkylation of DPA with NON was also investigated. Catalyst deactivation takes place during the alkylation of each batch and intensifies with repeated catalyst use, resulting in low DNDPA selectivity. The regenerated catalyst was sufficiently active only until the regeneration of the first and second batches. After the third batch, the catalyst’s selectivity for DNDPA was very low, and its reuse in the alkylation of DPA with NON was not efficient. Therefore, to achieve the maximum length of catalyst activity, the fresh catalyst was gradually added to the used catalyst from a previous batch, thus maintaining a high activity of eight batches. The reduction in catalyst activity was probably caused by the irreversible adsorption of substances on the surface, a loss of microporous structure, and a loss of surface acidity. DPA or alkylated products are adsorbed on the surface oxygen of the catalyst through nitrogen and form nitro formations. The fresh and regenerated catalysts were characterized by their surface area, surface acidity, pore size distribution, and pore volume.

Keywords: Alkylation; Nonene; Acidic heterogeneous catalysts; Diphenylamine

Full paper is available at

DOI: s11696-017-0139-2


Chemical Papers 71 (8) 1453–1461 (2017)

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