ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
Registr. No.: MK SR 9/7
Efficient synthesis of carbon nanotubes with improved surface area by low-temperature solvothermal route from dichlorobenzene
Gantigaiah Krishnamurthy and Sarika Agarwal
Department of Studies in Chemistry, Bangalore University, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Veedhi, 560 001, Bangalore, India
Abstract: The synthesis of well-aggregated carbon nanotubes in the form of bundles was achieved by the catalytic reduction of 1,2-dichlorobenzene by a solvothermal approach. The use of 1,2-dichlorobenzene as a carbon source yielded a comparably good percentage of carbon nanotubes in the range of 60–70 %, at a low reaction temperature of 200°C. The products obtained were analysed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The X-ray diffraction studies implied the presence of pure, crystalline, and well-ordered carbon nanotubes. The scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic images revealed the surface morphology, dimensions and the bundled form of the tubes. These micrographs showed the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with an outer diameter of 30–55 nm, inner diameter of 15–30 nm, and lengths of several hundreds of nanometers. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller-based N2 gas adsorption studies were performed to determine the surface area and pore volume of the carbon nanotubes. These carbon nanotubes exhibit a better surface area of 385.30 m2 g−1. In addition, the effects of heating temperature, heating time, amount of catalyst and amount of carbon source on the product yield were investigated.
Keywords: solvothermal process – 1,2-dichlorobenzene – low-temperature synthesis – CNTs bundles
Full paper is available at www.springerlink.com.
Chemical Papers 67 (11) 1396–1403 (2013)