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Effect of anthraquinone on brightness value and crystalline structure of pulp during soda processes

Esat Gümüşkaya, Evren Ersoy Kalyoncu, and Hüseyin Kirci

Department of Pulp and Paper, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon, Turkey



Received: 6 March 2009  Revised: 8 May 2009  Accepted: 12 May 2009

Abstract: The dependence of crystalline structure and optical properties of pulp on anthraquinone (AQ) added to the soda process at different cooking times was determined in this study. Wheat (Triticum aestevum L.) straw was used as the raw material for pulp. Soda and soda-AQ processes were selected for pulping at 80 min and 120 min. The soda-AQ process improved the yield and viscosity of pulp delignification ratio for pulping in comparison with the soda process. Crystallinity of pulp samples decreased by adding anthraquinone to the soda process because of stabilized less ordered cellulose and amorphous hemicelluloses in pulp. It was determined that crystallinity of pulp samples decreased with longer cooking time, from 80 min to 120 min, in both soda and soda-AQ processes. Monoclinic structure was dominant in pulp samples; however, the triclinic structure ratio increased in both soda and soda-AQ processes compared to raw material. It was found that brightness and lightness values in pulp samples decreased when using anthraquinone depending on the changes of the crystalline structure.

Keywords: cellulose - anthraquinone - soda pulping - crystallinity - wheat straw - brightness

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-009-0070-2


Chemical Papers 63 (6) 670–676 (2009)

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