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Mitigating Paleocene age Ranikot shale formation swelling characteristics using carbon supported anatase-titanium dioxide (MWCNT/TiO2, GO/TiO2 and AC/TiO2) nanomaterial water-based mud—chemical and rock interaction study

Shaine Mohammadali Lalji, Javed Haneef, and Saud Hashmi

Department of Petroleum Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan



Received: 11 September 2023  Accepted: 29 February 2024


Application of titanium dioxide nanomaterial having different crystal forms has been extensively studied in various fields. However, as a drilling fluid additive it is still an unexplored area. Changing the composition of TiO2 morphology, leads to substantial improvements in the environmental and energy sector. These enhancements are based on the chemical and physical interaction of the crystal structure. In the current work, the carbon supported anatase TiO2 particles are used as a drilling fluid additive to improve the efficiency of water-based mud systems. For the first time, the effect of the crystal system is considered on the drilling fluid performance. Three carbon supported particles in the form of MWCNT/TiO2, GO/TiO2 and activated carbon/TiO2 are used in drilling fluid. Each particle was added in the mud system with concentration ranging from (0.35 g, 0.875 g, 1.75 g, 2.625 g, 3.5 g,) respectively. The rheology, filtration, stability, and shale inhibition characteristics of the samples was performed. Improvement in electrochemical characteristics of the mud system was recorded after the incorporation of carbonaceous TiO2 particles. Moreover, the gelation and filtration characteristics of the muds were also enhanced after the synergy of carbonaceous material with TiO2. This interaction leads to better cutting suspension and provides smooth and compacted mud cake. In addition, all the mud samples interacted with Ranikot formation to observe its stability behavior. Substantial improvement in hydrophobic nature of the shale sample was recorded after interacting with the carbon supported TiO2 nanoparticles. These carbon supported particles are extremely potential in plugging the nano-pores of Ranikot shale and are responsible for maintaining the shale integrity.

Keywords: Activated carbon; Graphene oxide; Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; Shale; Titanium dioxide; Water-based mud system

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-024-03396-4


Chemical Papers 78 (7) 4361–4381 (2024)

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