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Toxicity of energetic nanomaterials assessed on L929 fibroblasts

Sijia Liu, Can Tang, Kai Jiang, Liyuan Zhang, Nan Ma, Yang Li, Meikun Fan, and Bing Huang

China Academy of Engineering Physics Institute of Chemical Materials, Mianyang, China



Received: 12 December 2023  Accepted: 12 January 2024


The widespread use of energetic materials (EMs) has increased human exposure to these substances, and the potential toxicity of nano-sized EMs remains a largely unexplored area of research. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of three nano-sized energetic nanomaterials, namely nano-sized triaminotrinitrobenzene (nano-TATB), hexanitrostilbene (HNS-IV), and 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide (nano-LLM-105), using L929 fibroblasts for in vitro testing. The findings demonstrate a significant dose-dependent toxic effect on L929 cells. As the dose increases, cell density decreases, cell morphology becomes rounder, and cell gaps widen. The results of cell activity assays, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity measurements, and apoptosis detection suggest that the cytotoxicity is caused by cell membrane fragmentation and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress. Given the potential for EMs to cause toxic effects in various tissues and organs, including the liver and kidneys, and even teratogenic and mutagenic effects, this work provides valuable insights into the toxicological evaluation of energetic nanomaterials.

Keywords: L929 fibroblast; Cytotoxicity; Energetic materials; Nanomaterial; Toxicological study

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-024-03324-6


Chemical Papers 78 (6) 3507–3514 (2024)

Saturday, June 15, 2024

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