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Zinc oxide–chitosan matrix for efficient electrochemical sensing of acetaminophen

Shymaa S. Medany, Mahmoud A. Hefnawy, Sahar A. Fadlallah, and Rabab M. El-Sherif

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt



Received: 24 September 2023  Accepted: 27 December 2023


The acetaminophen is an antipyretic and nonopioid analgesic that is prescribed for the management of fever and mild to moderate pain. The detection of acetaminophen by ZnO and ZnO@Chitosan-modified electrodes made of glassy carbon was compared. Acetaminophen was detected using surfaces of ZnO and ZnO@Chitosan over a 10–50 µM concentration range. The detection limits for ZnO and ZnO@Chitosan were anticipated to be 0.94 and 0.71 μmol L−1, respectively. In a wide range of acidic, neutral, and basic mediums with varying pH values, the impact of a change in solution pH on acetaminophen sensitivity was investigated. Electrokinetic studies were used to evaluate the acetaminophen detection efficiency. The charge transfer resistance (Rc) for various surfaces was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Using DFT studies, the synergistic effect of chitosan on zinc oxide was also shown. The Forcite model was used to calculate the surface interactions between chitosan and zinc oxide. Acetaminophen adsorption on the chitosan surface was also studied using the B3LYP density functional method.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticle; Chitosan; Acetaminophen detection; DFT; Electrochemical sensors

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03292-3


Chemical Papers 78 (5) 3049–3061 (2024)

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