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Exploring the effect of AC/TiO2 nanoparticles and polyanionic cellulose on water-based drilling fluid properties: an integrated approach of experiment and CCD

Shaine Mohammadali Lalji, Javed Haneef, and Saud Hashmi

Department of Petroleum Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan



Received: 25 August 2023  Accepted: 27 November 2023


Limited studies are performed in the petroleum sector on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles and its crystal form. Moreover, no study is reported up till now that studied the combination of carbonaceous material and TiO2. In the current work, the rheological and filtration characteristics of water-based mud was investigated after the addition of polyanionic cellulose grade-L and AC/TiO2 nanoparticles. To verify the impact of these two particles on the rheological and filtration behavior, central composite design was implemented, which further validates the experimental results. According to the research, concentration of particles was a significant parameter in maintaining rheological properties and minimizing the fluid loss volume. The AC/TiO2 nanoparticle was mainly responsible for keeping the plastic viscosity, yield point and gel strength within API standards. On the other hand, when the concentration of PAC-L goes beyond the critical concentration, the PV of the mud sample goes beyond API protocols; however, yield point and gel strength were not affected. The effect of these particles on API low-pressure low-temperature filtrate press test was also examined. The fluid which shows the maximum fluid loss volume and greater mud cake thickness was Sample 4. This sample had the least concentration of polymer and nanoparticles. The performance of PAC-L in filtration control yields a negative response. This polymer was unable to control the fluid loss effectively. The presence of K + ions in the base mud was responsible for this lower performance, as it dehydrates the polymeric material. On the other hand, the AC/TiO2 nanoparticle was mainly responsible for controlling the fluid loss volume and minimizing the mud cake thickness. Furthermore, the addition of AC/TiO2 nanoparticles in water-based mud system was effective in mitigating the shale swelling behavior. The concentration of this particle demonstrated strong negative correlation. This particle was responsible for the delamination effect, as it ensures the covering of clay surface and preventing the movement of water molecules in the nano-spacing present in clay structure. All the experimental work were also validated by ANOVA analysis. Overall, the AC/TiO2 nanoparticles proved to be an extraordinary drilling fluid additive as compared to less potential PAC-Lin improving the properties of water-based mud.

Keywords: AC/TiO2 nanoparticle; Central composite design; Filtration characteristics; PAC-L; Rheological properties

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03270-9


Chemical Papers 78 (4) 2661–2680 (2024)

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