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A comparative amination study of TiO2/Fe3O4/carbon nanocomposites prepared in one- and two-step plasma-based methods

Annisa Dinan Ghaisani, Teguh Endah Saraswati, and Kusumandari Kusumandari

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta, Indonesia



Received: 30 June 2023  Accepted: 17 October 2023


TiO2/Fe3O4/Carbon (TFC) nanocomposites have attracted attention and are widely applied in various applications. The nanocomposite surface modification is generally required following the synthesis step. This study compares aminated TFC prepared in one- and two-step methods. In the one-step method, the nanocomposite synthesis and amination were conducted simultaneously using the submerged arc discharge method in an ethanol medium with ammonia addition. As a comparison, the two-step method was studied, consisting of the initial synthesis stage conducted using the submerged arc discharge method in an ethanol medium, followed by the surface modification stage performed using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with Ar gas as the carrier for ammonia vapor. The nanocomposite surface characterization studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy reveals C–N and N–H vibration peaks in both infrared spectra of the resulting nanocomposites produced in one- and two-step processes. However, the energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis quantitatively shows a greater presence of N elements in the aminated TFC produced in a one-step process. Moreover, the amine quantitative analysis investigated by the Kaiser test confirmed that a relatively higher number of amine groups was successfully attached to the aminated TFC produced in the one-step process of submerged arc discharge in ethanol with ammonia addition.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords: Amination; Submerged arc discharge; Plasma jet; TiO2; Fe3O4; Carbon

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03161-z


Chemical Papers 78 (2) 1227–1237 (2024)

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