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Enhancing urinalysis with smartphone and AI: a comprehensive review of point-of-care urinalysis and nutritional advice

Haluk Çelik, Balım Bengisu Caf, Caner Geyik, Gizem Çebi, and Miray Tayfun

Vivosens, Inc., San Francisco, United States



Received: 2 May 2023  Accepted: 6 October 2023


Point-of-care diagnostics (POC), including urine test strips, offer several advantages over traditional laboratory-based urine analysis. POC allows us to regulate our nutritional needs. Urine analysis is a common diagnostic and well-being monitoring tool used to evaluate the overall health of an individual. It involves the examination of a sample of urine to detect and measure various substances and markers found in urine, such as proteins, glucose, leukocytes, ketones, and bilirubin, among others. Urine test strips, also known as dipstick tests, are a quick and convenient method of urine analysis that can be performed in conjunction with smartphone and AI-based analyses. These tests use a small strip of paper with chemically-treated reagents that change color when they react with specific substances found in urine. Dietary intake can have a significant impact on the composition of urine, as certain nutrients and compounds are metabolized and excreted through the kidneys. Understanding the effects of dietary intake on urine biomarkers can provide valuable insight into the overall health and nutritional status of individuals. This review explores existing literature to highlight the intersection between strip-based urine analysis, smartphone-based analysis, gold standards, and recent developments in urine analysis.

Keywords: Urine analysis; Urinary biomarkers; Minerals; Dietary intake; Smartphone-based; At-home test

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03137-z


Chemical Papers 78 (2) 651–664 (2024)

Wednesday, June 19, 2024

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