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In vitro screening of Triphala, its compositions and identification of a few phenolic compounds to determine their antioxidant, anti-malarial and hepatoprotective properties: a GC/MS-assisted metabolomics study

Jhelam Chatterjee, Muddasar Ul Hoda, and Susmita Das

Phytochemistry and Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India



Received: 2 February 2023  Accepted: 19 September 2023


Ethnopharmacological relevance of Ayurveda is the comprehensive part of ancient Indian System of Medicine for the well-being, disease prevention, and revival approach for human health. Triphala Rasayana is a potent, well-known ayurvedic medicinal herbal formulation that has a balancing and rejuvenating effect on the human body. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant, anti-haem-biocrystallization and hepatoprotective potential of methanolic, 50% methanolic and aqueous extracts of Triphala and its individual plant constituents, viz., Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula. A GC/MS-based metabolomics approach was also established for the metabolic profiling of these extracts. A total of 84 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and polyols, phenols, flavonoids, and anthraquinones have been identified and semi-quantified. The chemometric analysis revealed the changes in important plant metabolites in different solvent systems. The antioxidant potentiality and total antioxidant content of all these plant samples were assessed and compared as they showed a significant variation in their activities. Gallic acid, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 3,4 dihydroxybenzoic acid exhibited anti-malarial properties. On the other hand, benzene-1,2,4-triol, benzoic acid, and quinic acid showed β-glucuronidase inhibitory properties. The findings of this study suggested that all these phytoconstituents probably contribute to the bioactivity of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Triphala either individually or synergistically. 50% methanolic extract of Triphala and benzene-1, 2, 4-triol exhibited β-glucuronidase inhibitory properties significantly higher than that of Silymarin, the reference standard inhibitor of the enzyme.

Keywords: Triphala Rasayana; Benzene 1,2,4-triol; Anti-haem-biocrystallizaton; Quinic acid; β-glucuronidase

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03098-3


Chemical Papers 78 (1) 409–433 (2024)

Tuesday, June 25, 2024

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