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Design and synthesis of a novel optical chemoreceptor based on naphthalene azo dye for detecting cyanide ion in aqueous medium and real samples

Hassan Zavvar Mousavi, Asadollah Mohammadi, Shohreh Yaghoubi, and Nasibeh Azizi Khereshki

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran



Received: 28 January 2023  Accepted: 17 September 2023


In this work, a chemoreceptor based on naphthalene azo dye (HNC) was successfully synthesized, characterized and reported for highly sensitive and selective detection of cyanide ion over other anions and metal ions. The properties of chemoreceptor HNC was evaluated by naked eye and UV–Visible spectroscopy. Upon the addition of cyanide anion (CN) ions to the solution containing HNC, a distinct color change from orange to blue was observed, while no discoloration was observed with the addition of other tested ions. The chemoreceptor HNC were found to be extremely sensitive to the CN ion with a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.180 μM, which is lower than what the world health organization has described for cyanide anion in drinking water. The results of Job’s plot and NMR titration experiments indicated the one-to-one stoichiometric binding between the chemoreceptor HNC and CN ions. This chemoreceptor was also applied for solid states (test strips) and the detection of CN in real samples.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Optical sensor; Chemoreceptor; Cyanide sensing; 2-hydroxy 1-naphthaldehyde

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03097-4


Chemical Papers 78 (1) 397–407 (2024)

Sunday, May 19, 2024

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