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A review of volumetric titration as an efficient method for the quantification of ions and compounds in lithium-ion battery components

Mohammad Mohsen Loghavi, Mohsen Babaiee, and Rahim Eqra

Department of Energy Storage, Institute of Mechanics, Shiraz, Iran



Received: 15 May 2023  Accepted: 10 September 2023


In upgrading lithium-ion batteries, which today occupy a large share of the commercial battery market, preventing the degradation of components is a general solution. For this purpose, it is essential to accurately identify the factors affecting the performance of the components. Knowing the composition of the cathode material, the content of residual lithium on the surface of the cathode material, the ion exchange capacity of the separator, the concentration of ions during material synthesis, the content of functional groups in the carbon material, and the average valence of the metal ion can be useful in selecting materials and improving cell performance. Knowing the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the cell and the amount of hydrofluoric acid produced in the electrolyte is effective in reducing the rate of aging and avoiding battery safety risks. These items can be measured through various spectroscopic methods such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), chromatography approaches, and volumetric titration techniques. However, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods can be expensive, complicated, and poorly reproducible. Volumetric titration methods used include acid–base, complexometric, and oxidation–reduction titrations. Here, the inexpensive, simple, and practical methods of volumetric titration used in the identification of lithium-ion battery components are reviewed for the first time.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Titration; Lithium-ion battery; Stoichiometry; Identification; Volumetric; Endpoint

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03075-w


Chemical Papers 77 (12) 7395–7408 (2023)

Sunday, May 26, 2024

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