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Phyto-mediated synthesis of enhanced band gap ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles using Pisum sativum peels extract: comparison of their structural, optical, photocatalytic and antifungal characteristics

Shehzad Ahmed, Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari, Ahmed Bilal, and Syed Wajahat Ali

Department of Physics, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan



Received: 30 April 2023  Accepted: 5 September 2023


A proposal is made for the eco-friendly synthesis of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles utilizing aqueous extract from Pisum sativum (green peas) peels. The combustion method was employed to produce ZnO nanoparticles, while the precipitation method was used for TiO2 nanoparticles. The resulting ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were in the nanoscale, with average diameters of 67 nm and 42 nm, respectively. The colloidal formulation of the synthesized ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited exceptional stability, with zeta potentials of − 29.1 mV and − 32.5 mV, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles were highly pure and possessed the correct stoichiometric ratio, as confirmed by the EDX analysis. The crystal structure of synthesized ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles was identified as wurtzite and anatase, respectively. The band gaps of the ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were increased to 3.46 eV and 3.34 eV, respectively. FTIR analysis confirmed that phytochemicals in the extract acted as both reducing and capping agents. To evaluate the dye degradation ability of the synthesized nanoparticles, photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV light was performed. After a 3-h contact time, the percentage of methylene blue degradation achieved using a 200 mg/L dosage of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as catalysts were 90% and 92%, respectively. These dye degradation results surpassed those reported in previous studies. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited effective growth inhibition against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger fungi. Thus, the extract derived from Pisum sativum peels presents an economical and novel environment friendly source of reducing, stabilizing, and capping agents for the synthesis of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles, which demonstrate remarkable photocatalytic and antifungal capabilities.

Keywords: Pisum sativum; Nanoparticles; Green synthesis; Photocatalysis; Dye degradation

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03065-y


Chemical Papers 77 (12) 7697–7715 (2023)

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