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Strategic fabrication of para diethylamine calix[4]arene-functionalized CuO nanostructures: a metal–organic framework-based sensor for quantification of antipyrine

Ali Hyder, Safia Sanam Memon, Jamil A. Buledi, Shahabuddin Memon, Zafar-ul-Abdin Memon, Samiha Gul Shaikh, and Dhani Bux Rajpar

National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan



Received: 10 May 2023  Accepted: 11 August 2023


The present study reveals the synthesis of para-diethylamine calix[4]arene (p-DEAC4) functionalized CuO nanostructures by using a facile and environmentally friendly aqueous chemical growth method via employing the p-DEAC4 as functionalizing agent. The prepared p-DEAC4-functionalized CuO nanostructures were characterized by different analytical techniques, e.g., X-ray Diffraction, Fourier-Transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy which revealed phase structure, elemental composition, and surface interaction of p-DEAC4 with CuO nanostructures. In order to determine the conductive nature of p-DEAC4-functionalized CuO nanostructures, the cyclic voltammetry mode of electrochemical workstation was utilized. Different initial parameters were optimized for the selective and effective determination of antipyrine drug including scan rate 100 mV/s, NaOH electrolyte pH 11, potential range 0.0 to 1.0 V. The p-DEAC4-CuO/GCE-based sensor showed outstanding response for antipyrine drug. Under the linear concentration set from 10 to 190 µM, the LOD and LOQ were calculated as 0.0416 and 0.1308 µM, respectively. The analytical applicability of developed sensor was tested in the commercially available antipyrine drug samples with acceptable recovery results from 96.7 to 100.5%. The comprehensive experimental studies witnessed the reliability of the proposed method that it could be a promising electrochemical sensor to be used at the commercial level for the determination of antipyrine drug.

Keywords: p-DEAC4; CuO nanostructures; Antipyrine drug; Cyclic voltammetry; GCE

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03035-4


Chemical Papers 77 (12) 7737–7748 (2023)

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