ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
Registr. No.: MK SR 9/7

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An assessment of heavy metals in dust at recreational parks in Trinidad, West Indies: contamination status, source identification and health risk implications

Giselle Ransome and Faisal K. Mohammed

Department of Chemistry, The University of the West Indies, Saint Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago



Received: 7 February 2023  Accepted: 22 July 2023


This study examined the contamination levels, origin specifications and potential health risk assessments of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in road dusts from recreational parks throughout the island of Trinidad. Heavy metal concentrations were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and ranged from 0.33–2.30 µg/g, 2.15–23.33 µg/g, 12.73–103.12 µg/g, 46.37–419.37 µg/g, 8.61–30.00 µg/g, 13.38–323.87 µg/g and 78.20–669.19 µg/g for Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Indices such as geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and enrichment factor, applied to explore pollution patterns, indicated several degrees of pollution with the most prevalent polluting metals being Pb, Cu and Zn. Hazard index values were < 1 for all metals in the road dust indicating no significant risk from non-carcinogenic effect, while there were no significant cancer risks (< 10–6) for both children and adults.

Keywords: Toxic metals; Road dust; Recreational parks; Ecological risk; Health risk assessment; Trinidad

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02999-7


Chemical Papers 77 (11) 7067–7083 (2023)

Tuesday, June 25, 2024

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