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Box–Behnken design to optimize Ni(II) adsorption using coffee husk-derived biochar compositing with MnFe2O4

Thuy Tien Do, Huu-Tap Van, The Duyen Nguyen, Lan Huong Nguyen, and Ngoc Bach Ta

Faculty of Chemistry, Hanoi Pedagogical University 2, Phuc Yen City, Vinh Phuc Province, Vietnam



Received: 31 December 2022  Accepted: 28 May 2023


The main objective of this research was to optimize Ni(II) adsorption using coffee husk-derived biochar composited with MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (MFO@BC). The MnFe2O4 nanoparticles (MnFe2O4–NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitate method. Then, the MFO@BC nanocomposite was formed simultaneously through co-precipitation and hydrothermal processes. Box–Behnken experimental design in response surface methodology (Design Expert 11, Stat-Ease, USA) was used to carry the Ni(II) adsorption optimization onto MFO@BC. The effects of initial Ni(II) concentration, solution pH, contact time, and adsorption material mass were chosen as independent variables for Ni(II) adsorption processes on MFO@BC. The results indicated that the loaded mass ratio of 2.5 MnFe2O4–NPs (w/w) on the coffee husk-derived biochar was the most suitable for Ni(II) adsorption onto MFO@BC. The result of ANOVA analysis, where p values of 0.0005 were significant for the quadratic polynomial model. In addition, the proposed model was fitted with the actual values with the high R2 and R2–adjusted (R2adj) values of 0.8867 and 0.7647, respectively. Three factors, including initial Ni(II) concentration, solution pH and adsorbent mass, had the main effect on Ni(II) adsorption capacity by MFO@BC. Optimum conditions for Ni(II) adsorption onto MFO@BC were obtained at solution pH 7, 50 min of contact time, initial Ni(II) concentration of 4.0 mg/L and 0.025 g adsorbent/25 mL. Under these conditions, the maximum adsorption capacity of Ni(II) onto MFO@BC reached 5.51 mg/g. Five cycles of adsorption–desorption did not substantially decrease the adsorption capacities of MFO@BC.

Keywords: Box–Behnken design; Coffee husk-derived biochar; MnFe2O4-NPs; MFO@BC; Ni(II), Response surface methodology

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02896-z


Chemical Papers 77 (10) 5773–5786 (2023)

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