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Self-effervescence-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid micro-extraction for the extraction and preconcentration of some phthalate and adipate esters in sparkling water

Sakha Pezhhanfar, Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Azadeh Mirzaahmadi, Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini-Yazdi, and Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran



Received: 10 October 2022  Accepted: 4 March 2023


For the first time in this study, a sample preparation approach named self-effervescence-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction linked to dispersive liquid–liquid micro-extraction was evolved. This approach was applied to extract and preconcentrate some esteric compounds in plastic-bottled sparkling water samples. MIL-53 (Cr) was exploited as an adsorbent in the introduced method. In the procedure, releasing CO2 gas molecules from the sample after the addition of the mixture of metal–organic framework and Na2SO4 facilitated the sorption of analytes onto the sorbent. Vortexing was also implemented to increase extraction recoveries. After the sorption process, a mL level of 2-propanol was applied to desorb the target compounds. The obtained 2-propanol phase was then mixed with µL-level of 1,2-dibromoethane solvent as an extractant and injected into 5 mL of deionized water. Centrifugation of the formed milky solution induced sedimentation of 10 ± 0.5 µL of the organic phase containing the analytes. Injection of 1.0 µL of the stated phase into a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector commenced the separation, detection, and determination of the analytes in the studied matrix. The obtained linear ranges in this survey were wide. Also, the linearities of the calibration curves drawn for the analytes were pleasant (r2 ≥ 0.995). Moreover, reaching low limits of detection and quantification documented as 0.96–1.40 and 3.17–4.62 µg L−1, respectively, were the highlights of the study. As the finding of the research, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was detected and quantified as 33 ± 2 μg L−1 (n = 3) in the surveyed plastic-bottled sparkling water.

Keywords: Self-effervescence-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction; Dispersive liquid–liquid micro-extraction; MIL-53 (Cr); Sparkling water; Plasticizers; Gas chromatography

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02766-8


Chemical Papers 77 (7) 4041–4055 (2023)

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