ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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Durable water and oil repellents along with green chemistries: an overview

Rabia Sharif, Muhammad Mohsin, Haji Ghulam Qutab, Faisal Saleem, Saira Bano, Rizwan Nasir, and Ahtesham Wahlah

Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore (Faisalabad Campus), Faisalabad, Pakistan



Received: 28 November 2022  Accepted: 27 February 2023


The phase-out of long-chain C8-based perfluorochemicals necessitates the textile industry to find the best alternatives to these durable oil- and water-repellent chemistries. Finding out the alternatives has resulted in a textile market where both fluorine-based and fluorine-free durable water repellent (DWRs) are available. These DWR substitutes depending upon their chemistries are categorized into four major groups: long-chain fluorinated polymers, hydrocarbons including the long-chain fatty acids, silicones, and inorganic nanoparticles. This paper discusses various DWRs regarding their structure, properties, performance, loss, and degradation processes and their effect on the habitat and human health. The alternative DWRs lack performance compared to fluorinated finishes and, most importantly, oil repellence. Degradation products from all DWRs alternatives diffuse to the environment. Research shows that hydrocarbon-based DWRs are the most environment friendly (including long-chain fatty acids), followed by silicone-based DWRs and fluorinated polymer-based DWR finishes. Industrial commitments will play an important role in reducing impurities from available DWR chemistries. Before approaching environment-friendly alternatives of required performance, it is better to select DWR finishes on a specific requirement and always counter the benefits of enhanced performance against the potential threats to the ecology and human beings.

Keywords: Water- and oil-repellent finish; Fluorocarbons; Green chemistries; Environment friendly

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02763-x


Chemical Papers 77 (7) 3547–3560 (2023)

Thursday, July 18, 2024

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