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Study on the effect of pH on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Capparis moonii fruit extract: their applications in anticancer activity, biocompatibility and photocatalytic degradation

Lakkappa B. Anigol, Vinodkumar P. Sajjan, Prabhuodeyara M. Gurubasavaraj, Sharanabasava V. Ganachari, and Dhanashree Patil

Department of Chemistry, Rani Channamma University, Belagavi, India



Received: 13 December 2022  Accepted: 29 January 2023


Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been studied using a variety of plant extracts for biomedical applications in cancer nanomedicine. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using Capparis Moonii (CM) fruit extract as reducing agent. Intense surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption peaks at 404–420 nm in the UV–visible spectrum appeared to indicate the formation of AgNPs. The function of Capparis Moonii fruit extract as a reducing and capping agent was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of the produced nanoparticles was determined using scanning electron microscopy and they exhibit a spherical shape with a size range of 10–20 nm, according to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) demonstrated that silver is present in the silver nanoparticles at a percentage of 56.91% by atom. To determine the surface charge of AgNPs formed during biosynthesis, the zeta potential measurement was carried out. The lack of cytotoxicity to blood erythrocytes and normal human fibroblasts cell lines confirms the blood biocompatibility and cell compatibility of the synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs are cytotoxic to breast cancer (MCF-7), lung cancer (A549), pancreatic cancer (PANC-1) and skin cancer (A431) cell lines with IC50 values of 12.06, 24.87, 26.49 and 84.57 µg/mL, respectively. The synthesized silver nanoparticles show excellent photocatalytic activity on the degradation of rose bengal (RB) and methylene blue (MB). By observing the breakdown of RB and MB under direct sunlight radiation, the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized AgNPs was evaluated. At pH-2, 100% photocatalytic degradation of RB was completed in 60 min, whereas at pH-8, 96% photocatalytic degradation of MB was completed in 240 min.

Keywords: Capparis Moonii; Green synthesis; Silver nanoparticles; Anticancer activity; Cytocompatibility; Blood biocompatibility; Photocatalytic activity

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02707-5


Chemical Papers 77 (6) 3327–3345 (2023)

Tuesday, May 28, 2024

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