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Novel electrochemical sensor of nebivolol drug used for treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure

Yeliz İpek and Berna Koçak

Chemistry and Chemical Process Technologies Department, Vocational School of Tunceli, Munzur University, Tunceli, Turkey



Received: 24 August 2022  Accepted: 2 January 2023


Nebivolol is a beta-blocker used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. Nebivolol is a cardiovascular drug in the group of selective beta-blockers (with selective action on the cardiovascular system). It prevents the increase in heart rate and controls the pumping power of the heart. It also has a dilating effect on blood vessels and helps to lower blood pressure with this effect. The ability to analyze nebivolol quickly, simply, economically and reliably is of high importance in two cases. The first is to adjust the drug dosage to be used by the patients, and the second is to provide fast intervention in the drug production process as a result of fast and accurate quality control in drug production and to provide quality control of produced tablets. Since, the boric acid has a good catalytic activity and enhances the peak current intensity, a boric acid‒glutardialdehyde-modified glassy carbon electrode was designed for investigation of electrochemical behavior and quantitative determination of nebivolol (NBV) in this study. Electrochemical reaction peak and the peak current intensity changes with changing NBV concentration provide detection of NBV. The role of glutardialdehyde was to immobilize the boric acid on the electrode surface with its crosslinking ability. The designed electrode was achieved by dropping boric acid‒glutardialdehyde mixture on glassy carbon electrode and drying it at room conditions. By using boric acid‒glutardialdehyde-modified glassy carbon electrode (BA‒GA2/GCE), quantitative analysis of the active drug ingredient (NBV), which is widely used in the treatment of hypertension and chronic heart failure, was carried out sensitively, selectively and at low detection limits with low cost. This electrode exhibited good repeatability and stability for detection of the oxidation peak of NBV. In addition, the working ranges and detection limits of NBV were determined in the optimum experimental conditions. SWV technique was used and according to the results obtained, LOD values for NBV in BR buffer (pH 9) and in urine samples were 1.0 × 10−7 mol L−1 and 4.12 × 10−7 mol L−1, respectively. The feasibility of the developed novel sensor was demonstrated by performing recovery studies with tablet and urine samples containing NBV. The recovery results were 93.10% and 58.16% for urine and tablet samples, respectively.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Beta-blockers; Boric acid; Glassy carbon electrode; Voltammetric sensor; Glutardialdehyde

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02666-x


Chemical Papers 77 (5) 2783–2792 (2023)

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