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Use of smartphone for determination of flutamide in pharmaceuticals: capture on paper approach

C. Siddaraju, B. Pallavi, T. L. Pooja, and N. Rajendraprasad

PG Department of Chemistry, JSS Research Centre, JSS College of Arts, Commerce and Science (Research Centre Recognized by the University of Mysore), Mysuru, India



Received: 6 September 2022  Accepted: 2 December 2022


Two simple and inexpensive colorimetric captures on paper methods using PhotoMetrix PRO® Application of smartphone for the determination of flutamide (FA), an anti-prostate cancer drug, in pharmaceuticals are presented. The analytical procedure involves the conversion of FA to a free base form of flutamide by reduction, treatment with acetylacetone to obtain a Schiff base, and use of chromatographic paper to spot and capture the colored products of various analyte concentrations. Method-A is based on univariate vector RGB analysis to measure the color intensity of the Schiff base. Method-B on the other hand performed a multivariate partial least square analysis of the same Schiff base. Both methods showed a linear correlation over the range of 3–600 μg/ml reduced FA with respect to the measured intensity. For Method-A, the reported limit of detection and quantification are 0.75 μg/ml and 2.09 μg/ml, respectively. The regression coefficients are 0.986 and 1.000, respectively, for Method-A and B. The validation of the proposed methods was done concerning linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, robustness, and ruggedness according to the current guidelines of ICH. The mean recovery of FA by Method-A (97.9 ± 2.04%) and Method-B (98.9 ± 1.65%) is comparable to the reference method (100.31 ± 0.406%). The accuracy and precision of the developed methods are confirmed by the calculated t- and F-values, which do not exceed the tabulated values at a confidence level of 95%. Thus, these methods can be successfully used as routine analytical methods for the quantification of FA in quality control laboratories.

Keywords: Flutamide; Smart phone; Capture on paper; Photometrix PRO®; Determination; Pharmaceuticals

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02620-3


Chemical Papers 77 (4) 2171–2182 (2023)

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