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New low-cost, flow-through carbon electrodes characterized in brackish water

Arman Molaei, Fareed Ahmed, Ujwala Ail, and Xavier Crispin

Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden



Received: 13 September 2022  Accepted: 19 November 2022


We propose a simple and low-cost flow-through electrode for electrochemical cells used for instance in capacitive desalination. We have coated macro-porous carbon fiber papers with various loads of carbon microporous particles to combine both a high surface area and an open structure for good fluid dynamics. In this first study, we restrict our investigation to the charging/discharging behavior, the identification of side reactions, and the effect of geometry on the diffusion of ions. The electrochemical performance was first investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanic charge–discharge techniques. The specific capacitance increases by three orders of magnitude upon adding the carbon particles. Then, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of charge transfer phenomena and modification in the mass transport by the diffusion process for the coated electrode.

Graphical abstract

SEM image of the surface morphology of the cross section of CP/CFP/CP structure of the flow-through electrode.

Keywords: Flow-through electrode; Desalination; Supercapacitors; Carbon fiber paper; And Carbon paste

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02596-0


Chemical Papers 77 (4) 1941–1950 (2023)

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