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Sensitive and effective electrochemical determination of butenafine in the presence of itraconazole using titanium nanoparticles-ionic liquid based nanocomposite sensor

Mona A. Mohamed, Nahla N. Salama, Maha A. Sultan, Hadeer F. Manie, and Maha M. Abou El-Alamin

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Egyptian Drug Authority (EDA), Cairo, Egypt



Received: 4 June 2022  Accepted: 12 November 2022


The evaluation of the bioavailability of topically applied medications that act inside or under the skin is a challenging task. Herein, the current study describes a simple, quick, and low-cost electrochemical platform for determining butenafine hydrochloride (BTH) that is mainly prescribed as a treatment of dermatophytosis, applying titanium nanoparticles and an ionic liquid as outstanding mediators. In terms of low detection limits (61.63 nM) and extensive range of 2.21 × 10–7–13.46 × 10–5 M, the established electrochemical technique provided worthy analytical performance for butenafine hydrochloride sensing. The suggested sensor's practical applicability was effectively demonstrated in pharmaceutical preparations, actual stratum corneum samples, and simultaneous detection of butenafine hydrochloride and Itraconazole in pharmaceutical preparation for the first time. All of the experimental factors, like the pH and scan rate, have been investigated and optimized. Diffusion coefficients of butenafine hydrochloride at bare and modified sensors were calculated.

Keywords: Butenafine determination; Modified electrochemical sensors; Titanium nanoparticles; Ionic liquid

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02593-3


Chemical Papers 77 (4) 1929–1939 (2023)

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