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Trends in advanced materials for the fabrication of insulin electrochemical immunosensors

Yalda Zare, Jafar Soleymani, Mahdi Rahimi, Yavuz Nuri Ertas, and Somayeh Jafarzadeh

Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran



Received: 17 May 2022  Accepted: 2 August 2022


Diabetes is one of the main problems of our community that has been the reason for 1.5 million people in 2019. Raising blood sugar or hyperglycemia is an effect of uncontrolled diabetes which can lead to serious and dangerous health issues. Insulin is a hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the human blood. Therefore, reliable and fast quantification of insulin has a key role in the clinics. This review aims to provide a summary of the employed new advanced materials in the fabrication of insulin immunosensors for possible application in clinics. The importance and role of different types of nanomaterials in the fabrication of these types of insulin sensing probes were also highlighted. Carbon-based materials are concurrently the most used and sensitive materials for insulin immunosensor fabrication. Also, the employed techniques for the designing of insulin immunosensors have been discussed and their limitations and beneficial features for accurate and on-time quantification of insulin were explored in detail. Electrochemical-based methods have been widely utilized and usually provide more sensitive approaches than other methods which have been developed for insulin detection.

Keywords: Biomedical Analysis; Diabetes; Insulin; Immunosensor; Advanced materials; Clinical analysis

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02416-5


Chemical Papers 76 (12) 7263–7274 (2022)

Thursday, May 23, 2024

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