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Cost-efficient biodiesel production from Pongamia pinatta by optimizing carbon chain length using condensation polymerization, catalytic breakdown, kink production, and double bond induction in the feedstock oil

Farwa Nadeem, Muhammad Asif Hanif, Khurram Shahzad, Ahmed Saleh Ahmed Summan, and Arshid Mahmood Ali

Nano and Biomaterials Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

 

E-mail: drmuhammadasifhanif@gmail.com

Received: 30 January 2022  Accepted: 8 June 2022

Abstract:

Condensation polymerization, catalytic breakdown, kink production, and double bond induction in the feedstock have been tested first time for biodiesel production. Biodiesel as an alternative fuel has gained much importance in the past few decades. Still, higher densities and poor low-temperature flow properties have made its excessive usage quite questionable. Therefore, the present research work was designed to overcome the above-mentioned problems by taking a step towards sustainable development of renewable energy sources. The fatty oil of Pongamia pinnata was extracted, vacuum filtered, fractionated, and treated to optimize the carbon chain length of fatty acids (by condensation polymerization, catalytic breakdown, kink production, and double bond induction) prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The highest biodiesel yield (%) was obtained by removing excessive long-chain fatty acids that could cause the hindrance in transesterification reaction and reduce the quality of fuel. The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids of Pongamia pinatta showed the highest percentages of oleic acid (54.76 ± 0.001%), linoleic acid (11.87 ± 0.085%), and palmitic acid (10.03 ± 0.014%). The results of the present study showed the best low-temperature flow properties of fraction-ethylene glycol-L-V [(cloud point (CP): 1.7 ± 0.056 °C) and (pour point (PP): −5.2 ± 0.098 °C)] and fraction-catalytic breakdown-L-II [(cloud point (CP): 1.5 ± 0.054 °C) and (pour point (PP): −5.2 ± 0.023 °C)].

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Transesterification; Fractionation; Oleic acid; Linoleic acid; Palmitic acid; Gas chromatography; Cloud point; Pour point

Full paper is available at www.springerlink.com.

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02326-6

 

Chemical Papers 76 (11) 6915–6929 (2022)

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