ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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4E assessment and 3D parametric analysis of an innovative liquefied natural gas production process assisted by a diffusion–absorption refrigeration unit

Mehdi Mehrpooya, Seyed Ali Mousavi, Mostafa Delpisheh, Andrew Zaitsev, and Andrey Nikitin

Faculty of Cryogenic Engineering, School of Biotechnology and Cryogenic Systems, ITMO University, Saint Petersburg, Russia



Received: 26 January 2022  Accepted: 10 April 2022


Cumulative electricity demand in the world’s energy portfolio has elicited in focusing new energy carriers. Herein, a single mixed refrigerant (SMR) LNG process, precooled with a diffusion–absorption refrigeration (DAR) system, is proposed and appraised through 4E assessment and 3D parametric analyses. The SMR subsystem feeds on 63,850 kg/h of natural gas at 6650 kPa, and, utilizing 331,630 kW of waste heat, the DAR subsystem transfers 139,306 kW of refrigeration duty, at − 29.62 °C to the SMR, and thereby 57,850 kg/h LNG is produced. The results indicate the cost per unit exergy of 13.54 $/GJ and cost rate of 90.71 $/s regarding the LNG output. Also, the exergy destruction cost rate percentage share in most components is higher than the investment cost rates. The T-100 tower had the largest exergy destruction cost rate at 64,763.52 $/h, while the COMP-102 compressor had the highest investment cost rate at 1821.35 $/h. The nominal interest rate increases the exergoeconomic factor and the overall cost rate in the case of the T-100 tower. The annualized cost of system (ACS) analysis indicated the ACS at 100.458 M$/year with a levelized cost of product (LCOP) at 0.198 $/kg LNG. The exergoenvironmental evaluation signposted that the total environmental impact is the highest in air coolers AC-100 and AC-101, respectively. Finally, the 3D parametric showed that compressor C-100 isentropic efficiency and inlet temperature of the tower T-100 had non-consistent connotation, whereas compressor C-100 pressure ratio and heat exchanger HX-102 minimum approach temperature had consistent connotation.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: LNG; Life cycle assessment; Diffusion–absorption refrigeration; Exergy analysis; Exergoeconomic analysis; Annualized cost of system analysis

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02227-8


Chemical Papers 76 (8) 5231–5252 (2022)

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