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Determination of nitrite on manganese dioxide doped reduced graphene oxide modified glassy carbon by differential pulse voltammetry

Betül Yılmaz-Alhan, Gamze Çelik, M. Oguzhan Caglayan, Samet Şahin, and Zafer Üstündağ

Department of Chemistry, Kütahya Dumlupınar University, Kütahya, Turkey



Received: 10 February 2022  Accepted: 8 April 2022


A transition metal oxide, MnO2, doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared to develop a 2D-carbon-metal oxide composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GC) for sensitive electrochemical determination of nitrite ion (NO2). GO was first synthesized and reduced to rGO followed by a MnO2 doping process. The obtained MnO2-rGO composite was then characterized with Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The MnO2-rGO coated on GC electrodes were electrochemically characterized using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and optimized for the determination of NO2 using differential pulse voltammetry. A linear calibration curve was obtained between 0.1 and 5.5 μM with LOD and LOQ values of 0.02 μM and 0.06 μM, respectively. The selectivity of the proposed sensor was tested in different substances and no significant interference was found. The sensor validation test showed that the precision (% RSD) and accuracy of the system were around 1.95–2.73% and (− 3.5)–2.5%, respectively. Finally, real sample tests with commercially available juice samples and tap water confirmed that the method could detect the spiked NO2 in real samples. As a result, the sensitive and easy determination of NO2 has been achieved using MnO2-rGO composite materials in real samples with good recovery values and minimum interference.

Keywords: Nitrite analysis; Sensors; MnO2 doped reduced graphene oxide; Differential pulse voltammetry

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02218-9


Chemical Papers 76 (8) 4919–4925 (2022)

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