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Preparation and characterization of intelligent color-changing nanosensor based on bromophenol blue and GONH2 nanosheet for freshness evaluation of minced Caspian sprat (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia) stored at 4 °C

Shahab Naghdi, Masoud Rezaei, Nader Bahramifar, and Bambang Kuswandi

Seafood Processing Department, Marine Sciences Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, Iran



Received: 5 September 2021  Accepted: 20 January 2022


We expanded a novel colorimetric nanosensor for monitoring the freshness of the minced fish package based on the bromophenol blue dye-based pH-responsive indicator with GONH2 nanosheet. The characteristics of the GONH2 were investigated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results from FTIR test showed the presence of amine groups on GO. The results of the AFM analysis showed that the height of the aminated graphene oxide nanosheet was nearly 0.6–0.8 nm. Scanning electron microscopy tests revealed that GONH2 nanosheet settled in the surface of bromophenol blue-GONH2 nanosensor, as well as the distribution of GONH2 nanosheets at the surface of nanosensors were ununiform. The Raman spectrum of graphene oxide spectra represented D bond at the 1350 cm−1 and G bond in the area of 1582 cm−1. The sensing properties of the bromophenol blue-GONH2 nanosensor as a freshnees nanosesnor was evaluated toward ammonia and formaldehyde as some of the spoilage indicators, and its responses were changed in color, while they were different in the various amount of GONH2 used in the sensor. Results revealed that just the nanosensor enriched with 50 mg/L GONH2 was able to recognize both formaldehyde and ammonia; therefore, it was selected as an on-package colorimetric nanosensor to evaluate the freshness of fish minced packaged. The correlation results presented a strong correlation between total color difference (ΔE) with TVB-N, TVC, PTC, TBA. Meanwhile, the color change of bromophenol blue-GONH2 from brown to blue during storage of fish minced at 4 °C can be employed as a trustworthy, comfortable, and economical method for monitoring minced fish freshness.

Keywords: Colorimetric sensor; Fish freshness; GONH2 nanosheet; Intelligent packaging

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02095-2


Chemical Papers 76 (5) 3133–3146 (2022)

Tuesday, June 18, 2024

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