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Impact of dissolved rare gases (Ar, Xe and He) on single-bubble sonochemistry in the presence of carbon tetrachloride

Aissa Dehane and Slimane Merouani

Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Annaba University, Annaba, Algeria



Received: 22 July 2021  Accepted: 11 December 2021


In sonochemistry, pyrolysis of CCl4 inside an acoustic bubble plays various roles (e.g., removing CCl4, producing reactive chlorine species, speeding OH radical generation, and enhancing water-contaminant destruction). The kind of gas saturating the reaction media is critical in regulating CCl4 sono-pyrolysis and its outcomes.

The effect of three saturating noble gases (Ar, Xe, and He) on single-bubble sonochemistry in the presence of CCl4 was numerically studied in this work for a variety of operational circumstances. First, it was discovered that the presence of CCl4 affects the chemistry of the collapsing bubble, where other chemical processes, including the breakdown of CCl4 and the formation of reactive chlorine species (RCS: CCl3, :CCl2, Cl, Cl2, HOCl), were accounted. For both total oxidants production (i.e., reactive oxygen and chlorine species) and CCl4 conversion yields, numerical simulations indicated that the xenon effect outperformed helium and argon. For all operational circumstances, the maximum rate of oxidant production and CCl4 conversion is in the order Xe > Ar > He. However, the difference in total oxidants generation rates between xenon and argon bubbles is minor than between argon and helium bubbles. Furthermore, the gas type impact was highly dependent on the frequency, the acoustic power, the concentration of CCl4 and the liquid temperature. The maximal conversion yields were achieved for xenon and argon gases. For maximum oxidants production, a temperature of 40 °C was found to be optimum. The use of high concentrations of CCl4 (≥ 1 mM), particularly in the presence of xenon, allows maximum oxidants production, which is very advantageous for the use of CCl4 as intensification technology for the sonochemical removal of hydrophilic pollutants from water.

Keywords: Ultrasound; Saturation gases; Carbon tetrachloride; Sonoactivity; Active bubbles

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-02022-x


Chemical Papers 76 (5) 3011–3030 (2022)

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