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Loading antibiotics on the surface of nano-networked sodium hydroxide treated titanium

Eren Yılmaz and Serbülent Türk

Department of Welding Technology, Arifiye Vocational High School, Sakarya Applied Sciences University, Kaynarca, Turkey



Received: 21 September 2021  Accepted: 25 December 2021


Bone-implant bonding can be achieved by stimulating the apatite formation with the alkaline chemical process applied to the surface of Ti and its alloys. Although the bioactivity can improve the osseointegration feature of the implant, the shortening of the implant life due to the risk of infection during implantation is a problem frequently encountered in biomedical applications and causes the removal of the implant. Therefore, in this study, NaOH pretreatment was performed on Ti plates to create a nano-networked surface that can stimulate apatite formation. It aimed to reduce the risk of infection by loading antibiotics on these surfaces. After alkali treatment, a nano-network structure with 80–150 nm pore sizes with alpha titanium and sodium hydrogen titanate phases was formed. It has been observed that this surface provides apatite formation when kept in simulated body fluid for 3 days. The appearance of an inhibition zone after drug loading proved its antibacterial property. At the same time, the cell viability of the drug-loaded alkaline treated surface was 85%. It was concluded that antibiotic-loaded nano-networked NaOH surfaces could be recommended for dental and orthopedic implants in terms of both cellular behavior and infection risk.

Keywords: Alkaline treatment; Nano-network structure; Antibacterial; Drug loading

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-02045-4


Chemical Papers 76 (4) 2459–2467 (2022)

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