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Synthesis, characterization and thermal decomposition kinetics of energetic copper complex based on 3,5 dinitrobenzoic acid and 1,10 phenanthroline

Priyanka Singla, Arjun Singh, Subash Chandra Sahoo, Pramod Kumar Soni, and Prateek Kishore

Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory, Chandigarh, India



Received: 17 May 2021  Accepted: 19 November 2021


An energetic Copper (II) complex based on 3,5 dinitrobenzoic acid (DNBA) was synthesized from a copper nitrate, 3,5 dinitrobenzoic acid and 1,10 phenanthroline. This complex was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and UV–Vis spectrometry. Moreover, the structure of complex was studied by the single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The spectroscopic and XRD results confirmed that the complex consisted of mononuclear units comprising of two ligands coordinated with copper metal via nitrogen and oxygen 1,10 phenanthroline and DNBA with 1:1 stoichiometry. The apparent activation energies were determined from its derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves using Ozawa and Kissinger methods and were found to be 126.4 and 119.7 kJ mol−1 for the first stage and 178.1 and 170.4 kJ mol−1 for second stage, respectively. The results of the activation energies obtained from Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS) methods are similar and consistent to those obtained from the ASTM E698 method. The reaction models were calculated through model fitting by using Coats-Redfern and Madhusudanan methods and the results indicate that it is probably best described by Avrami-Erofeev (A4) model. Furthermore, critical ignition temperature, self-accelerating degradation temperature and thermodynamic parameters were also investigated. The sensitivity study reveals that energetic complex is less sensitive than the conventional RDX and HMX.

Keywords: Energetic metal complex; Chemical properties; Decomposition kinetics; Reaction model; Thermodynamic parameters

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-01992-2


Chemical Papers 76 (4) 2111–2124 (2022)

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