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Influence of precursor ions on the structural morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructure and cytotoxicity on murine NIH 3T3 cells

Samreen Heena Khan, Virendra Kumar Yadav, Daoud Ali, and Rakesh Varghese

Centre for Research and Development, YNC ENVIS PVT LTD., New Delhi, India



Received: 10 July 2021  Accepted: 14 September 2021


In the present work, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized by using different precursors and the influence of different counter ions (acetate, sulfate, and nitrate) on various physical, morphological, and optical properties was investigated. The in vitro cytotoxicity of sonochemically synthesized ZnO NPs were assessed on murine NIH 3T3 cell line for 24 h. The synthesized materials were systematically analyzed by advanced characterization tools, and the obtained data confirm the prominent role of the precursor ions determining the various properties of ZnO. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scattering electron micrographs revealed the active role of anions in determining the both interior and exterior surface morphology of ZnO; powder X-ray diffraction analysis exhibits hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra show the blue and green emission bands along with large crystalline defects in the ZnO; also, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirms the formation of pure ZnO. The neutral red uptake and lactate dehydrogenase tests were used to determine the cytotoxicity of synthesized ZnO NPs. Data showed induction of cytotoxic effects such as damage of membrane integrity, reduction of cell viability on a dose-dependent basis. The main aim of the present paper is to study the influence of different precursor ions on various properties of ZnO NPs as well as the cytotoxic studies on NIH murine 3T3 cell lines. The result justifies that the precursor ion has a substantial impact on determining the property of the nanostructured material.

Keywords: Zinc oxide; Neutral red uptake; Nanostructure; Cytotoxicity; NIH 3T3 cell line

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-01877-4


Chemical Papers 76 (1) 477–489 (2022)

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