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Ruthenium (III)–pyridine complex: Synthesis, characterization, barrier diode and photodiode applications in Al/Ru-Py/p-Si/Al sandwich device structure

Ali Yeşildağ

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey



Received: 26 January 2021  Accepted: 21 May 2021


Ruthenium (III)–pyridine (Ru-Py) complex has been synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR, UV–Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy and HRMS. The crystal structure of the Ru-Py complex was determined by X-ray crystallography. The Ru-Py complex was coated on a p-type Si semiconductor by a spin coating method to obtain a Schottky barrier diode (SBD) device. Basic electrical parameters of the obtained Al/p-Si/Al MS and Al/Ru-Py/p-Si/Al SBD devices were calculated by using thermionic emission (TE) theory such as ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb). From the current–voltage (I–V) measurements, the n value of the reference Al/p-Si/Al MS structure was 1.55 and the Al/Ru-Py/p-Si/Al SBD structure was 1.24 at room temperature. The Ru-Py complex as interface material made the device behave more ideally and decreased the value of the ideality factor. Φb values of the reference MS and SBD devices were calculated as 0.67 and 0.78 eV, respectively. The presence of Ru-Py complex films in the device structure increased the barrier height. Additionally, using the C−2–V graph obtained from frequency-dependent C–V measurements, the diffusion potential (Vd), acceptor concentration (Na), Fermi energy (Ef), barrier height (Φb) parameters of Al/Ru-Py/p-Si/Al device were calculated. Current–voltage (I–V) measurements of the device obtained with Ru-Py complex were taken in different lighting intensity. In the I–V characteristics, the reverse and forward bias current increased depending on the light. It was concluded that the Al/Ru-Py/p-Si/Al device is suitable for photodiode applications.

Keywords: Ruthenium (III)–pyridine complex; Schottky barrier diode; Photodiode; Electrical characterization

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-01715-7


Chemical Papers 75 (9) 4949–4958 (2021)

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