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Synthesis of nanotubular oxide on Ti–24Zr–10Nb–2Sn as a drug-releasing system to prevent the growth of Staphylococcus aureus

Luis López-Pavón, Daniel Dagnino-Acosta, Enrique López-Cuéllar, Frank Meléndez-Anzures, Diana Zárate-Triviño, María Barrón-González, Iván Moreno-Cortez, Hee Young Kim, and Shuichi Miyazaki

Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, San Nicolás de los Garza, México



Received: 27 August 2020  Accepted: 26 December 2020


The aim in the present study was to explore the potential application of titanium nanotubes developed in the Ti–24Zr–10Nb–2Sn alloy, as drug delivery systems to prevent bacterial infections in medical devices. A nanotubular oxide layer was synthesized by electrochemical anodizing on the Ti–24Zr–10Nb–2Sn superelastic alloy and the electrical variables that control the growth at constant potential were determined. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the nanostructures show a positive linear growth as a function of the applied potential, the superficial analysis carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed different states of valence evidencing the presence of TiO2, Nb2O5, SnO2, and ZrO2. FTIR spectra confirm the presence of the antibiotic gentamicin in the Ti–24Zr–10Nb–2Sn nanotubes. The developed nanostructures were evaluated in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) as a controlled release system of antibiotics. It was observed by bacteriological tests that the nanostructured morphology in combination with the chemical composition has bacteriostatic properties; while the release of the antibiotic-loaded inside the nanotubes had a bactericidal effect. The results showed that it is possible to grow and control the morphology of the developed nanostructures on Ti–24Zr–10Nb–2Sn, which can be used for orthopedic purposes to transport and control the local release of molecules like antibiotics at the site of interest and thus prevent postoperative infections.

Graphic abstract

Keywords: Anodization; Titanium nanotubes; Antibacterial

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-020-01495-6


Chemical Papers 75 (6) 2441–2450 (2021)

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