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Bioaccessibility study and simultaneous quantification of endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A and phthalates) in utensils and toys for infants using HPLC–UV

Gabriel Acioly de Lima, Jandyson Machado Santos, Ana Paula S. Paim, and André F. Lavorante

Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, Brazil



Received: 10 April 2021  Accepted: 29 August 2021


This work aims to develop a method for the determination of simultaneous bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalates (DBP), bis-2-ethylhexyl (DEHP), di-n-octyl (DNOP) and diisodecyl (DIDP) in utensils and toys intended for infants, as well as to evaluate the bioaccessibility of these compounds in artificial saliva. For this purpose, we applied an optimization design of experiments (DOE) for extraction using ultrasound-assisted liquid and detection by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method was validated, finding detection limits of 0.0035−0.0512 mg L−1 for bisphenol A and the phthalates analyzed, linear range from 5 to100 mg L−1 (R2 = 0.9989) and 0.5–10 mg L−1 (R2 = 0.9993) for DIDP and other analytes, respectively. Extraction in an ultrasonic system was performed with chloroform and optimized with a 24 full factorial design, defined as 1.50 g of sample in 10 mL of chloroform, extraction time of 20 min and temperature at 65 °C. Matrix effect tests showed that the method did not suffer this type of interference; recovery studies showed values from 74.1 to 114.9%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 9.34% (n = 5). Ten samples of toys and utensils for infants were analyzed using the optimized method, and the results presented concentrations between 0.09 and 30.8 mg Kg−1 and 0.060 and 21.13 mg Kg−1 for phthalate and bisphenol A, respectively. Migration tests with artificial saliva were performed showing concentrations between 0.06 and 10.3 mg Kg−1 and 0.01 and 0.3 mg Kg−1 for phthalates and bisphenol A, respectively.

Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; Utensils and toys for infants; Factorial planning; Bioaccessibility; HPLC

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-01847-w


Chemical Papers 76 (1) 189–202 (2022)

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